It is the 14th time the 20-time Grand Slam champion has reached the second week in Paris.
Women’s second seed Karolina Pliskova exited the French Open in a blaze of unforced errors on Court Philippe Chatrier as she was comfortably dismissed 6-3, 6-3 by Croatia’s Petra Martic.
The 31st-seeded Martic will face Estonia’s Kaia Kanepi for a place in her first-ever Grand Slam quarter-final.
Pliskova’s defeat means Naomi Osaka will retain the world number one spot after Roland Garros.
The Indo-French team of Leander Paes and Benoit Paire advanced to the second round.
However, Divij Sharan and his Brazilian partner Marcelo Demoliner made an early exit.