The beyond-visual-range missile was launched from Sukhoi-30 MKI as a part of user trials.
A defence official said as part of the trial, the live aerial target was engaged accurately demonstrating the capability of the first indigenous air-to-air missile.
Various radars, electro-optical tracking system and sensors tracked the missile and confirmed its engagement with the target.
Astra has been designed by the DRDO, the premier research and development organisation of the armed forces in the country.
The Astra is capable of engaging targets of different ranges and altitudes including long-range as well as short-range targets.
Raksha Mantri Rajnath Singh congratulated DRDO and Air Force teams for the successful test.